What Are Genes Made Of?

What Are Genes Made Of?

At MelixGXTM, we are bringing the power of genomic DNA analyzation to you. A thorough understanding of your genetic make-up is a valuable asset if you are looking to advance your health, wellbeing, and happiness. But before diving in, it is important to understand what are genes made of?

The word gene originates from the Greek words “pan”-”genos” meaning “all”-”kinds” or “all”-”offspring”. The subtle variations in our complex and exhaustive genetics create the myriad of traits we carry as a species. All races come from the steady stream of nucleotide bases, the building blocks of DNA, that form the human genome.

Overall, our DNA is almost identical. Only 0.5% of your genetic material is unique; but in reality, that is not such a small change. The human DNA sequence is made up of over 3 billion nucleotide pieces. 0.5% of these 3 billion genetic building blocks is still 15 million unique bases that help shape our individuality.

The human genome contains the entire sequence of nucleotide bases that comprise our DNA. This DNA is packaged within 23 chromosomes pairs meaning it contains a total of 46 chromosomes. This genome is found within the nuclei of our many cells. With the exception of spontaneous mutation impacting individual cells, the genetic material will be identical in all cells. Genes quite simply, are a unit of hereditary instruction. Genes direct the production of proteins which are one of the many “molecules of life.” Proteins are a vital part of all living organisms and perform many crucial tasks that help sustain the human system. Ultimately, the protein production that correlates to your unique gene sequencing helps to create your many traits and characteristics.

Everyone has anywhere from 20,000 to 25,000 genes. Each of these genes can contain several hundred to 2 million nucleotide bases. A gene can have different forms which are located at the same point on the chromosome. The alternate forms of genes are known as alleles and can be related to observable and more discrete traits. The differing alleles are a factor involved in many of our features such as eye and hair color.

Genes are segments of the DNA sequence. The sequence is made up of nucleotide bases. There are four of nucleobases in the DNA structure each represented by one of the four letters: A, T, C, or G. Each of their structures are reminiscent of each other as all of them include a nitrogen-containing base, one or more phosphate groups, and a five-carbon sugar (pentose). RNA which performs many roles within the cell is also constructed by nucleotide bases that are similar in structure. The major difference between these nucleotides is that the DNA contains the five-carbon sugar deoxyribose and RNA contains the five-carbon sugar ribose.

As you study nature from a biochemical perspective you begin to see a pattern. Life utilizes simple building blocks that come together to create increasingly complicated organisms and structures. The sophistication of this creative process is seen in nature’s ability to intricately coax simple units into shaping beautiful creatures.

Understanding the Genome and the Composition of Chromosomes

The terminology surrounding genetic material can initially be very intimidating.  Many often wonder “are chromosomes made of genes?” or “are genes made up of chromosomes?”

Genes are located ON chromosomes. Chromosomes are composed of DNA “wrapped” around chromatins which are built of nucleotides and proteins. Chromosomes vary in both length and sequence. The main protein in the chromatins are histones which help compact the DNA creating the complete chromatin complex. This complex of nucleotides and proteins is then condensed to create the chromosome.

Simply put, genes are a portion of the DNA sequence and are included in the chromosome structure. The proper packaging and condensation of the DNA material included in genes lead to the creation of chromatin and chromosome structures which are readily utilized by the cell for reproduction and correct functioning.

Your genes are made up of simple building blocks. They direct the building of proteins which help shape the functioning and unique features of your body. Seemingly minute changes in DNA can create such a wide variety of life forms. Humans are constantly seeking to understand how to utilize our unique biology for success. Our experts at MelixGXTM understand how to crack your genetic code and provide you with relevant information and strategies to get the most out of your body and mind. We offer unique DNA testing kitsthat are specially designed to help maximize your wellness and manage any symptoms that may arise in your daily life.

Once you are ready to utilize the efficiency and intelligence of your genetic code, reach out to our team to discuss your next steps. Just remember, “It starts with Melix.”